4C-Id Model (Jeroen Van Merriënboer)

In Ten Steps to Complex Learning (2018), van Merrienboer and Kirschner present a 4C ID model designed by a task-centered teaching design model based on research on education and learning since the late 1980s. The task – the educational program of the 4c, the ID, is evaluated on the basis of its underlying principles. It stimulates the process by prescribing learning methods that lead to a richer knowledge base, a more complex understanding of the world around us and a wider range of learning outcomes. We slowly read complex topics and repeat the whole model of tasks, which offers the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding and advanced knowledge of complex topics such as language, mathematics, natural sciences, history and philosophy. [Sources: 0, 3]

We can use the training bike interface, which is similar to using training bikes on a children’s bike. The training wheel approach can also be used to support learning tasks (see Leutner 2000), but can also be used in the form of a curriculum model such as the 4C ID. [Sources: 2]

This article provides a brief summary of the model and illustrates its application in higher education by describing three educational programs developed using the 4C ID model. These three cases show the advantages of the task – centered teaching design and the use of an interface for training bikes, all of which are used by the 3D model, as well as the training bike approach. The 4c-ID models proposed in this article cover a wide range of educational needs, such as education, health and health education. [Sources: 2, 3]

Secondly, we present the four building plans of 4C that support complex learning: learning tasks, training wheels, learning tools and learning interfaces. Table 1 presents other types of learning tasks, sorted by product-oriented support (see van Merrienboer 1997 for a complete description of each type of learning task). [Sources: 2]

The 4C ID model for complex learning and the four building plans for learning tools and interfaces (van Merrienboer 1997). [Sources: 5]

The curriculum is described in detail and compared with the original course of explicit IPS training (van Merrienboer 1997). [Sources: 3, 5]

The development of an educational program with the 4C ID model is an important step towards an objective – based approach. It proposes the use of demonstration examples that provide the context for learning tasks. Van Merrienboer, Clark and Croock (2002) write that 4c ID models address one of the greatest challenges in the development of human-computer interaction. The development of educational programmes with 4c ID models is a good example of the application of objective approaches. [Sources: 1, 2, 3]

Instructions should therefore focus on developing a networked knowledge base that enables different types of knowledge to be activated when confronted with new and unknown tasks. Rather than putting everything about a given subject into a single course, van Merrienboer suggests that complex learning concepts should be based on the transfer of learning from one subject to another, rather than on a transfer from one subject to another. If this transfer is the overarching learning outcome, the 4c ID model should be used to develop training programs for complex skills. [Sources: 2, 3, 4]

Computer-based simulations provide a powerful approach to presenting case studies, because the learner is then able to change the setting of a particular variable, study the impact of the change on other variables, and investigate relationships (i.e. work with the case study). In the second task of the class, the inductive approach is illustrated by computer simulations and case studies. In a query that uses Boolean operators, as illustrated in this case, learners can identify and discover the relationship between a set of variables and their relationship to a single variable (e.g., a Boolean operator). [Sources: 2]

The mental model can be analysed and viewed from different perspectives, such as from the perspective of the learner, the user or even from another perspective. [Sources: 2]

The basic message of the 4c ID model is to describe the environment of complex learning. However, at the level of micro-sequencing, learning is of the utmost importance, so we define a training programme that is developed accordingly. The student starts with a task class that contains simple tasks that a specialist could do but could end up with tasks in the class that contain more complex tasks than a recently graduated student can. [Sources: 2, 3]

A full discussion of this can be found in van Merrienboer (1997) for a detailed description of the 4c ID model and rules-based learning transfer. [Sources: 2]

Part of this book is that Van Merrienboer tells how she worked on real-life projects that deal with complex learning. She is known for her work that focuses on the acquisition and training of complex cognitive skills. Er, jumping is the use of the 4c ID model for double – mixed – learning, short “double – learning.” [Sources: 6, 7]


[0]: https://www.daveswhiteboard.com/archives/1899

[1]: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/4c_id.html

[2]: https://docplayer.net/11345590-Blueprints-for-complex-learning-the-4c-id-model.html

[3]: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ejed.12363

[4]: https://ttcinnovations.com/4cid-using-the-four-component-instructional-design-model-for-your-training/

[5]: https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/cambridge-handbook-of-multimedia-learning/fourcomponent-instructional-design-model-multimedia-principles-in-environments-for-complex-learning/3D7027423C5A22AB4E092EE20CFFF598

[6]: https://3starlearningexperiences.wordpress.com/2020/02/03/what-is-complex-learning-in-the-workplace/

[7]: http://www.leervlak.nl/jeroen-van-merrienboer-over-double-blended-learning-celda2016/